Design of Experiments (DOE) is a structured approach for varying process and/or product factors (x’s) and quantifying their effects on process outputs (y’s), so that those outputs can be controlled to optimal levels.
DOE deals with identification of critical factors and their response variables, and the magnitude of the response for each level of the critical factors. DoE is also used to understand the interaction between the various critical factors to ensure right mix of the critical factors to get the best amount of response.
DoE is used to understand the transfer function and mathematical model for the optimization of the response variable.
A DC motor manufacturer might wish to understand the effects of two process variables, wire tension and trickle resin volume, on motor life. In this case, a simple two factor (wire tension and trickle resin volume), two level (low and high values established for each of the two factors) experiment would be a good starting point. Randomizing the order of trials in an experiment can help prevent false conclusions when other significant variables, not known to the experimenter, affect the results. There are a number of statistical tools available for planning and analyzing designed experiments.
A Six Sigma Project Charter is essentially a planning document. The document also serves as an agreement between the project team and the management for the project. This is the essential record through which the management accepts and supports the project. This document is essentially an agreement between the Management and the project team on what is expected from both the sides. This is used to
Keep the project team aligned with the organizational Goals.
Clarifies what is expected out of the team
Keeps the team focussed on the objective
the project teams role is in fact increased from the champion after the charter is agreed.
A charter is prepared, once you have defined the problem, to communicate and confirm agreement between the problem-solving team and management.
There can be many other forms to use for a project charter. The most important information needed for management to approve the project must be captured here.
Here are the essential elements of the Project Charter
These will define the complete description of the project in the language fo Management.
In the earlier sections I have covered the list of key components and the problem statement in the following articles. I will continue this discussion on the Project Charter so that the problem is well understood at all levels and support wherever needed in clearly identified. A good start is half done. Same way in a Six sigma Project, A good project charter becomes heart of the project and to achieve the goals.
Once you have defined the problem clearly the other sections of the charter need to be completed. Follow these sections in the order so that the logical flow is available. However, this is not mandatory. The details are below. Project Goal or Goal Statement: The Goal statement is linked to resolution of the problem. Important consideration here is to set a goal which is achievable in a period of about 120 to 160 days. The goal is agreed by the team and team champion as achievable. This really helps in setting the scope of the project. Business Case & Estimated cost: This section is for the Management to understand the Return on Investment. This shall be as realistic as possible since this is commitment to the Management on the benefits of the project. The business case shall be linked to resolving the problem and the benefit shall be in line with reducing the losses as outlined in the problem statement and achieving the goal in the goal statement. Support Needed: This will help the management to understand allocation of resources and support. This shall outline the likely support needed from outside the project team. Milestones: Clearly define the timelines for the phase of the project. This will help to see if the project is in the right direction and correct course by both management and the project team. Signatures/Approvals : This is just a commitment for the project both from management and the project team.