Affinity diagram and Fish bone diagram

These Quality Control tools are used in problem Solving as a visual methods such as Affinity diagram and  Fish bone diagram. These are used in some lean programs also to make sure value stream and value addition.
Affinity Diagram: – Definition
A process to organize disparate language info by placing it on cards and grouping the cards that go together in a creative way. “header” cards are then used to summarize each group of cards.
Cause and Effect Diagram
A problem-solving tool used to show relationships between effects and multiple causes.
CEDAC
Acronym for Cause and Effect Diagram with the Addition of Cards. CEDAC is a method for involving team members in the problem solving process.

Fishbone Diagram  A chart that resembles a fish skeleton, with a main spine and branches (bones) drawn at a slant off the spine; used for quality control in two main ways:
1. As a cause-and-effect diagram, where the spine denotes an effect and the branches are cause factors.
2. As a subdivision of quality requirements, where the spine represents a quality objective and the branches describe subsidiary traits or measurements that are important but are not the end in them selves. (Sometimes referred to as a Reverse Fishbone)

Affinity diagram and  Fish bone diagram 1
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Originally posted 2012-08-26 06:58:00.

What is A3 thinking

A3 thinking- Definition

Forces consensus building; unifies culture around a simple, systematic methodology; also becomes a communication tool that follows a logical narrative and builds over years as organization learning; A3 = metric nomenclature for a paper size equal to 11”x17”

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Originally posted 2012-08-26 06:56:00.

Thinking of waste and avoidence of waste – some early thoughts

Continuing from the previous success of Arsenal of Venice in the great tradition of manufacturing there are some early thoughts into the lean and lean manufacturing. There are some early thoughts on avoidence of waste which have contributed greatly in their times.
The Great American Author, Scientist, philosopher, Benjamin Franklin has recorded in his poor Richards Almanac, about wasted time. He also mentioned about increasing profits by reducing costs He added that avoiding unnecessary costs could be more profitable than increasing sales: “A penny saved is two pence clear. A pin a-day is a groat a-year. Save and have.”. The same  thoughts continued in his book “The way to wealth”. Here he attacks carrying unnecessary inventory. here is the text  “You call them goods; but, if you do not take care, they will prove evils to some of you. You expect they will be sold cheap, and, perhaps, they maybe bought  for less than they cost; but, if you have no occasion for them, they must be dear to you”. Another statement form the same book “remember that many have been ruined by buying good penny Worth’s.”  If you look at these statements clearly, these were preaching avoidance of waste and the resulting profitability.
The concept further studied by Franklin Gilberth, who saw that some movements which are waste in the job of a mason. He Saw that the masons bend to pick the bricks and this takes considerable time. Gilberth came up with the scaffold, which reduced the movement and made the bricks available at a waist height. This has resulted in the speed of work.These are some clear early thoughts on eliminating the waste. These became foundation for the lean journey today. In fact, Henry Ford, who was one of the fore fathers of lean thinking got his inspiration form Benjamin Franklin.

The history of lean manufacturing continues. Next we will see the effect of industrial revolution which started around 1750 on the journey of lean.

I would request readers to add the history wherever possible.

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Originally posted 2012-08-19 12:38:00.

What is 5S and 6S

5S and 6S are the basic tools for organizing the workplace. They are the used for improving the work place culture. They are used organization of the workplace, the name comes from the six steps required to implement and the words (each starting with S) used to describe each step: sort, set in order, scrub, standardize, and sustain which are called as 5S and the Sixth S is added which is safety in the later stages
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Originally posted 2012-08-26 06:53:00.

Lean and Arsenal of Venice – earliest example of production excellence

I have started this blog when i was having lot of time. of late, I am getting busy day by day. But i have decided that i will re organize my calendar and spend some time on this blog. suddenly i read about lean and Arsenal of Venice which was earliest known example of production excellence.
While talking about re organization, I looked at some value addition in what I am doing. Some of the things which I looked in this reminded me of Lean and Lean tools.
What is “Lean”?
Lean is way to determine value sought by customers, offer value through an end to end process, value stream, by engaging everyone touching the value stream to reduce waste, variations and overburden throughout the value stream.
There are some early examples in the history of production excellence using lean techniques (Mass production). One such instance which will really surprise is on the Venetian Arsenal, which is ship building facility in the city of Venice. Comparing the facts on the efficiency of this great production facility, to some of today’s companies will be a great surprise and a question arises on are we really moving forward.
Enough of awe, now about the facility. (All these facts are in the range of 1100 – 1700 AD)
The Venetian Arsenal, which was the largest industrial complex in the northern part of Italy. It has about 110 ha area, occupying almost 15% of the area of the City of Venice. This facility is responsible for producing bulk of the Naval and Merchant power of the Venetian Rulers in the Mediterranean ares.
Initially the facility worked only to maintain the privately owned ships. this changed by 1320 when the Arsenal Nuovo was built. This facility is equipped to both construct and maintain the state-owned naval ships and the merchant ships.
Here are some facts of this great facility.
Number of workers – 16000
Rate of production – One ship Per Day
Number work in Progress – 100 galleys .
New thinking – from the main hull first technique to frame first technique
consultant – Galileo Galilei

The Arsenal Nuovo used the Mass production and assembly techniques divided into 3 main processes. Framing, Planking and Cabins and Final Assembly. All these production systems are used in early 1500s and these are not seen till the industrial revolution in the late 1700s.
This seems to be the first thought of Lean and Mass production, Assembly lines, Process identification, employee specialization, continuous production etc. many thoughts were in fact used, which were the buzzwords of the Lean today.
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Originally posted 2012-08-15 17:41:00.

Sixth principle of SPC – causes for Variation

According to the sixth principle of SPC  a frequency distribution will be deviating from normal distribution, only in the presence of any assignable cause.
A frequency distribution is a tally of measurements that shows the number of times the measurement is included int he tally. From this frequency distribution we can see if there are only chance causes present in the process of any assignable causes are acting.
If there is a distortion from the normal curve, we can say that there is presence of assignable causes. This finding can actually help us to find the causes and address them.
Various effects of the presence of assignable causes, will tend to distort the shape in center, or the spread as sees earlier. This indication forms the basis of various techniques used in Statistical Process Control.
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Originally posted 2012-05-02 01:31:00.

Fifth Principle of SPC – shape of the distribution

The Fifth Principle of SPC  states that it is possible to determine the shape of the distribution form the measurements of any process. We can learn abut what the process is doing, against what we want the process to do. For this we need to measure the output of the process with the design specifications.the process can be altered if we donot like the comparison, especially if we see a variation.
We need to address eh variation so that it falls in the required pattern. The variation is due to mainly of 2 types. Common Cause variation and Special Cause Variation.
If the variation in output is caused only by common causes, the output will vary in a normal and predictable manner. In such cases, the process is said to be “stable” or “in a state of Statistical Control”.  While the individual measurements may differ from each other, they tend to follow a Normal Distribution.
The normal distribution is characterized by the following

  • Location (Typical Value)
  • Spread – Amount by which the smaller values differ from the center.

The shape of the distribution will deviate from the normal curve in case of any un usual occourances.  These changes can be called as Assignable causes.

The presence of assignable causes will result in difference from the usual normal curve, either in Shape, or in spread or a combination of both.
Fifth Principle of SPC - shape of the distribution 2
Non Normal
some changes are given below. 
Fifth Principle of SPC - shape of the distribution 3
Normal

Fifth Principle of SPC - shape of the distribution 4
Non Normal

The above findings will lead us to the sixth principle of SPC – Variation due to assignable causes tend to distort the normal distribution curve.

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Originally posted 2012-05-02 01:24:00.