Tabulation of data is the most commonly used method for presentation or organization of data. The table has distinct features which are explained here. The data collected by using various methods like Surveys, Interviews, In-field studies etc will give you the raw data. You may not be able to draw any conclusions using this data. This data need to be organized and then only it can talk(yes. the data talks if it is collected properly) to you. Also this data will talk for you only if your present it in such a way that the user can receive.
There are various methods by which you can organize and present the data.The selection of the method depends upon the purpose and the target audience.
The most commonly used method is tabulation. Normally we see many tables daily. However, if your presentation or analysis is to be relevant, the table shall contain the relevent details.
A good table is used to condense the data and present in a useful form. It is the most common method and easily understood method of presenting data.
A good table will have the following details.
- The Table must have a heading.
- The Table should present the data clearly, highlighting important details.
- The Table should save space but attractively designed.
- The table number and title of the table should be given.
- Row and Column headings must explain the figures therein.
- Averages or percentages used in the table should be close to the data.
- Units of the measurement should be clearly stated along the titles or headings.
- Abbreviations and symbols should be avoided as far as possible.Sources of the data should be given at the bottom of the data.
- In case irregularities creep in table or any feature is not sufficiently explained, references and foot notes must be given.The rounding of figures should be unbiased.
- Wherever notes is required, they should be given below the table with relevent references.
If a table contains all the above, it can be said a good table. Even though these are present is the normal table, the classifications is good to verify if the table is good or not.
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Originally posted 2012-01-23 02:14:00.
Control Charts is a running record of the process performance. It is a recod of results of periodic sampling inspections.
A chart becomes a control chart when it has control limits based on inherent process variation. Process control limits are boundaries on a control chart within which the process can operate to a standard. These limits are based on natural variation of the process without the influence of assignable causes. each time the job is checked, the results are compared with the control limits. If the results are within the control limits, then the process is to be left alone. But if a point on a control chart falls outside the control limits, or any other indications of an out of control process, it indicates that there is some change which is happened and the process in no lnger operating normally.
In other words, Control Limits are warning singnals that tell us
1. When to take action
2. When to leave the process alone.
Taking action on a process operating within control limits is not only eneconomcal but may also increase the variation.
There are two general types of Control Charts
1. Variables Chart – This type of chart is used where a dimentsion of a charecteristin is meaeasured and the result is a value.
Popularly used Variables charts are
X-Bar – R Charts
X-Bar – S – Charts
2. Attributes Chart. – This type of chart is used where a product quality is assessed by sensory means or the data is in terms of count of defectives of count of defects.
Teh popularly used Attributes Charts are
In addition to above there are some adapations to the control charts which are a combination of the above. These are called Special Contorl Charts which will be discussed later.
Originally posted 2011-12-04 05:40:00.
When talking of statistics, we come across many simple terms. These Basics are called as basic statistics. we come across them day in and day out, when ever we are working on any statistics. Without these basic statistics terms, we cannot understand anything with respect to our statistical problem. Most of them are also used in our daily life, but may be with a different name in statistics
- Average – Also called the mean, it is the arithmetic average of all of the sample values. It is calculated by adding all of the sample values together and dividing by the number of elements (n) in the sample.
- Central Tendency – A measure of the point about which a group of values is clustered; two measures of central tendency are the mean, and the median.
- Characteristic – A process input or output which can be measured and monitored.
- Cycle Time – The total amount of elapsed time expended from the time a task, product or service is started until it is completed.
- Long-term Variation – The observed variation of an input or output characteristic which has had the opportunity to experience the majority of the variation effects that influence it.
- Median – The middle value of a data set when the values are arranged in either ascending or descending order.
- Mode : The data point which occurs at maximum frequency
- Lower Control Limit (LCL) – for control charts: the limit above which the subgroup statistics must remain for the process to be in control. Typically, 3 standard deviations below the central tendency.
- Lower Specification Limit (LSL) – The lowest value of a characteristic which is acceptable.Range – A measure of the variability in a data set. It is the difference between the largest and smallest values in a data set.
- Specification Limits – The bounds of acceptable performance for a characteristic.
- Standard Deviation – One of the most common measures of variability in a data set or in a population. It is the square root of the variance.
- Trend – A gradual, systematic change over time or some other variable.
- Upper Control Limit (UCL) for Control Charts – The upper limit below which a process statistic must remain to be in control. Typically this value is 3 standard deviations above the central tendency.
- Upper Specification Limit (USL) – The highest value of a characteristic which is acceptable.
- Variability – A generic term that refers to the property of a characteristic, process or system to take on different values when it is repeated.
- Variables – Quantities which are subject to change or variability.
- Variable Data – Data which is continuous, which can be meaningfully subdivided, i.e. can have decimal subdivisions.
- Variance – A specifically defined mathematical measure of variability in a data set or population. It is the square of the standard deviation.
Originally posted 2011-10-20 12:53:00.
The first step of any statistical enquiry is the collection of relevant numerical data. The types of data used for statistical purposes is mainly classified as primary data and secondary data
a characteristic of population that can take different values (e.g., defects, processing time).
Data are measurements collected on a variable
Data collected for the purpose of the given inquiry is called as Primary Data. These are collected by the enquirer, either by his own or through some agency set up for this purpose, directly from the field of enquiry. This type of data can be used with greater confidence because the enquirer himself decides upon the coverage of the data, definitions to be used and as such will have a greater control over the reliability of the data.
The data already collected by some other agency or for some other purpose and available in published or un published form is known as secondary data. The user has to be perticularly careful about using using such data. The user must clearly understand the nature of the data, their coverage, the definitions used for the data and their reliability.
The usage of secondary data is generally preferred if the conditions mentioned above are clear and usable. This will reduce the time taken for the analysis, also reduces cost of the analysis.
Types of data
Count or frequency of occurrence
Data which on one of a set of discrete values such as pass or fail, yes or no.
Measurements that can be meaningfully divided into finer and finer increments of precision
Usage of Sampling
The big question is weather the collection of data should be done by complete population or by sampling. If sample is used, care should be taken that this is a representative of complete population. A sample designed with care can produce results that may be sufficiently accurate for the purpose of enquiry. A Carefully designed sample can save a lot of time and money.
Methods of Data Collection
The methods used to collect data are Questionnaire Method, Interview Method and Direct Observation Method. Any one or a combination of these are used to collect data.
Usage of Data
The data collected should be subjected to a thorough scrutiny to see if they may be considered correct. The success of the analysis depends on the reliability of the data. However excellent the statistical method of data analysis may be, they cannot bring out useful and reliable information from faulty, unreliable of mistaken data. Especially, this is more applicable in case of usage of secondery data.
Like this?? – Go on the visit the next column – Statistics – 3: presntations and Organization
Originally posted 2011-10-01 11:14:00.
Statistics can be described as a quantitative method of scientific investigations.
If used as plural noun ‘Statistics’ means the numerical data arising out of any sphere of human experience.
Used as singular ‘Statistics’ is the name for the body of scientific methods used for collection, analysis, Organizing, and interpretation of Numerical data.
According to American Statistical Association “Statistics” is the scientific application of mathematical principles to the collection, analysis, and presentation of numerical data’
Also, There is a different meaning for the word ‘Statistic’ in the field of Statistics(subject). In this sense A ‘Statistic’ is a numerical item which are produced by the some calculations using the data. Standard Deviation, Mean etc are called as ‘Statistic’ in this sense.
This is one arm of Mathematics, which is extensively used in all most every field. It has become an important tool in the work of many academic disciplines such as medicine, psychology, education, sociology, engineering and physics, just to name a few. It is also important in many aspects of society such as business, industry and government. Because of the increasing use of statistics in so many areas of our lives, it has become very desirable to understand and practice statistical thinking. This is important even if you do not use statistical methods directly.
Even with so many uses, there is some mistrust in public about the subject. This is because of the misuse of the figures by the people for their convenience. During the introduction to the course i joined on, this statement is used. There are 3 types of lies. 1 – Lies, 2- damned Lies 3-Statistics. We will teach you the 3rd part here.
Used properly statistics is a panacea for all the problems faced by the world. it can be a tremendous tool for the growth of any organization.
Visit the next post Data Collection – Types of Data
Originally posted 2011-09-30 20:00:00.
There are 21 records required by ISO 9001 : 2008 to be in compliant. The detailed list along with definitions are explained in this article.
What is a Record?
According to ISO 9000:2005, Record is defined as a document stating results achieved or providing evidence of activities performed.
Records shall remain legible, readily identifiable, and retrievable according clause 4.2.4 of ISO 9001:2008.
The Records maintained by the organization are to be controlled.
Clause 4.2.4 deals with control of records
ISO 9001:2008 requires some records to be maintained mandatory. A statement saying “records shall be maintained” (See 4.2.4) against various clauses for identifying them.
The Mandatory records to be in complaint with ISO 9001:2008 are
- Records from Management Reviews (5.6.1)
- Appropriate records of Education, Training, Skill and Experience for personnel performing work (6.2.2)
- Records which can provide evidence that the realization process and the resultant product meets the requirements (7.2)
- Results and actions arising out of review of requirements related to the product (7.2.2) (For eg Sales Records)
- Design and development inputs relating to the product (7.3.2)
- Results and actions arising out of the review of design and development m(7.3.4)
- Results and actions arising out of verification of design and development (7.3.5)
- Results and actions arising out of validation of design and development (7.3.6)
- Results and actions arising out of review of design and development changes (7.3.7)
- Results and actions arising out of evaluation of suppliers (7.4.1)
- Records to demonstrate validation of special processes (7.5.1)
- Records of unique identification of the product (where traceability is a requirement) (7.5.3)
- Records of information to the customer in case the customer property is lost, damaged or otherwise found to be unsuitable for use (7.5.4)
- Validity of the previous measuring results when measuring equipment is found to be out of calibration
- Results of calibration and verification of the monitoring and measuring equipment (7.6)
- Records of basis used for calibration or verification of monitoring and measuring equipment in case of absence of specified standards (7.6)
- Records of audits and their results including follow up actions (8.2.2)
- Records of person(s) authorizing release of product for delivery (8.2.4)
- Records of product non-conformities and the subsequent actions (8.3)
- Results of corrective action (8.5.2)
- Results of preventive action (8.5.3)
In addition to the records listed above, the organization may decide to maintain additional records but it is always advisable to maintain the record maintained are simple
Also Note that the records can be combined where appropriate and also maintain a record in one or more parts.
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Originally posted 2011-06-12 08:47:00.
The Quality Audit is a very important value adding tool for an organization to prove the compliance with the requirements and for continuous improvement. The types of quality audit which are faced by the organization are first, second and third party audits.
First Party Audits : – These are done internally.They are a management tool with the emphasis on continuous improvement. The auditor(s) must be independent of the audit area. The audit should be aligned with the Company goals and metrics. These audits are also called as internal audits. The out come in this audit is the management is aware of the status of the organization. These reports may be required to be shared with some of the third parties.Normally these are conducted by the Quality Department or the MR or their representative.
Second Party Audits :- These are the audits conducted by those who have some vested interest in the outcome of this audits. These may be OEM’s, Suppliers, Customers etc. These are also called as survey or assessment. These may be conducted for having a relationship or even for the compliance. Normally these are conducted by the second party employees. In some cases, these may be outsourced to a third party with mutual agreement with the organization and the party who wants the audit to be conducted.
Third Party Audits :- These audits are conducted by an organizations which has no interest in the final outcome. These may be Independent Certification Bodies, Regulators or a firm hired by the company. The out come of this audit may be certification, license, acceptance or even an award.
Categories of Audits
The Quality audits can be categorized as follows
System Audits :
These audits are conducted on a system spread across multiple processes and may include several employees and several departments. For Eg: Calibration System audits
These are conducted against different requirements. For eg: A third party audit for certification of ISO 9001:2008
These are conducted to verify the compliance of the regulations. For Eg: A government employee auditing a firm.
This audit focuses on a set of processes within the organization, to examine the adherence to the procedures or specifications
Product Audit :
This is more of an inspection activity. The main objective of this audit is to ensure the product is confirming to the requirements.
Department Audit :
The main focus of this audit is only one department. within the department many processes, procedures and specifications. It also focuses on department training and organization.
Originally posted 2011-06-05 02:15:00.