De-bottlenecking process and improving throughput

De-bottlenecking is  one of the very good lean tools focus on reducing cycle time and improving throughput. One of the important toll used is to study the bottlenecks in the system and improving throughput. A systemic approach is taken in studying, analyzing and acting on the bottlencks. A similar approach is taken in the theory of constraints also.

Bottleneck- Definition

The place in the value stream that negatively affects throughput; as a resource capacity limitation, a bottleneck will not allow a system to meet the demand of the customer.

De-bottlenecking:

De-bottlenecking essentially involves studying the bottleneck in the system and Improving the throughput rate of the process by working on optimizing the utilization of the bottleneck. 

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Originally posted 2012-08-26 07:33:00.

Cellularization or Cellular Manufacturing

In lean Manufacturing, Cellurization or Cellular Manufacturing is used to great affect. These are the Quality control tools used for cycle time reduction and set up time reduction.

Cellular Manufacturing
An approach in which manufacturing work centers (cells) have the total capabilities needed to produce an item or group of similar items; contrasts to setting up work centers on the basis of similar equipment or capabilities, in which case items must move among multiple work centers before they are completed. Each work center is capable of producing from start to finish of a product. Since very little movement is involved, this will help in optimizing the cycle time. 

Cellularization
Grouping machines or processes that are connected by work sequence in a pattern that supports flow production. Her the focus is on flow of the work, where there is very little movement of the work in the shop floor. Looking at a cycle time point of view the improved flow will certainly help in faster production. 
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Originally posted 2012-08-26 07:44:00.

What is Autonomation

Autonomation:
Described as “intelligent automation” or “automation with a human touch.” If an abnormal situation arises the machine stops and the worker will stop the production line. Prevents the production of defective products, eliminates overproduction and focuses attention on understanding the problem and ensuring that it never recurs.
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Originally posted 2012-08-26 07:14:00.

Affinity diagram and Fish bone diagram

These Quality Control tools are used in problem Solving as a visual methods such as Affinity diagram and  Fish bone diagram. These are used in some lean programs also to make sure value stream and value addition.
Affinity Diagram: – Definition
A process to organize disparate language info by placing it on cards and grouping the cards that go together in a creative way. “header” cards are then used to summarize each group of cards.
Cause and Effect Diagram
A problem-solving tool used to show relationships between effects and multiple causes.
CEDAC
Acronym for Cause and Effect Diagram with the Addition of Cards. CEDAC is a method for involving team members in the problem solving process.

Fishbone Diagram  A chart that resembles a fish skeleton, with a main spine and branches (bones) drawn at a slant off the spine; used for quality control in two main ways:
1. As a cause-and-effect diagram, where the spine denotes an effect and the branches are cause factors.
2. As a subdivision of quality requirements, where the spine represents a quality objective and the branches describe subsidiary traits or measurements that are important but are not the end in them selves. (Sometimes referred to as a Reverse Fishbone)

Affinity diagram and  Fish bone diagram 1
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Originally posted 2012-08-26 06:58:00.

What is A3 thinking

A3 thinking- Definition

Forces consensus building; unifies culture around a simple, systematic methodology; also becomes a communication tool that follows a logical narrative and builds over years as organization learning; A3 = metric nomenclature for a paper size equal to 11”x17”

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Originally posted 2012-08-26 06:56:00.

Types of Data

The first step of any statistical enquiry is the collection of relevant numerical data. The types of data used for statistical purposes is mainly classified as primary data and secondary data

Variable

a characteristic of population that can take different values (e.g., defects, processing time).

Data

Data are measurements collected on a variable

Primary Data

Data collected for the purpose of the given inquiry is called as Primary Data. These are collected by the enquirer, either by his own or through some agency set up for this purpose, directly from the field of enquiry. This type of data can be used with greater confidence because the enquirer himself decides upon the coverage of the data, definitions to be used and as such will have a greater control over the reliability of the data.

Secondary Data

The data already collected by some other agency or for some other purpose and available in published or un published form is known as secondary data. The user has to be perticularly careful about using using such data. The user must clearly understand the nature of the data, their coverage, the definitions used for the data and their reliability.
The usage of secondary data is generally preferred if the conditions mentioned above are clear and usable. This will reduce the time taken for the analysis, also reduces cost of the analysis.

Types of data

Discrete Data

Count or frequency of occurrence

Attribute Data

Data which on one of a set of discrete values such as pass or fail, yes or no.

Continuous Data

Measurements that can be meaningfully divided into finer and finer increments of precision

Usage of Sampling

The big question is weather the collection of data should be done by complete population or by sampling. If sample is used, care should be taken that this is a representative of complete population. A sample designed with care can produce results that may be sufficiently accurate for the purpose of enquiry. A Carefully designed sample can save a lot of time and money.

Methods of Data Collection

The methods used to collect data are Questionnaire Method, Interview Method and Direct Observation Method. Any one or a combination of these are used to collect data.

Usage of Data

The data collected should be subjected to a thorough scrutiny to see if they may be considered correct. The success of the analysis depends on the reliability of the data. However excellent the statistical method of data analysis may be, they cannot bring out useful and reliable information from faulty, unreliable of mistaken data. Especially, this is more applicable in case of usage of secondery data.

Like this?? – Go on the visit the next column – Statistics – 3: presntations and Organization

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Originally posted 2011-10-01 11:14:00.

What are Principles of Quality Management Systems

The function of Top Management include Management of Quality Management along with other disciplines. To succeed in Business, the top management can utilize the quality management principles identified by the International Standards like ISO 9000 Family. The Same principle apply for the other standards like AS 9100, TS 16949 which are supplement to ISO 9001. The Principles of Quality Management Systems are
Customer Focus
The Organization depend its our customers and should understand the current and future customers’ needs, should meet their requirements, and strive to exceed their expectations.
The organization must make sure that:
Customer needs & expectations are determined
Customer needs are converted into specific requirements
Customer requirements are fulfilled with the aim of “exceeding” expectations to “enhance” customer Satisfaction.
Customer Satisfaction : Customer’s perception of the degree to which the customer’s requirements have been fulfilled”(Ref: ISO 9000:2000, 3.1.4)
Customer Complaints are a common indicator of low customer satisfaction, but their absence does not necessarily imply high customer satisfaction. Even when customer requirements have been agreed with the customer and fulfilled, this does not necessarily ensure high customer satisfaction.Research shows that fewer than 5% of dissatisfied customers actually complain.
Leadership
Leaders establish a unity of purpose and the direction of the organization.  They must create and maintain the internal environment in which all employees can become fully involved in achieving the organizations objectives. There is a need for “Top Management” to play an active role in the operation & performance of the QMS.
“Top Management” involvement in the implementation & improvement of the QMS will be checked by external auditors.
Involvement of People
People at all levels are the essence of the organization and their full involvement enables their abilities to be used for the organization’s benefit. the most valuable assets of an organization is its Human Resources. The organization should create an internal environment for people at all levels feel the ownership of their task and improving it to achieve the desired customer satisfaction.
Process Approach
A desired result is achieved more efficiently when activities and related resources are managed as a process.
What is a “Process”? : “an activity using resources and managed to enable the transformation of inputs to outputs”. Often the output from one process directly forms the input to the next.
Systems Approach to Management
Identifying, understanding and managing interrelated processes as a system contributes to the organizations effectiveness and efficiency in achieving its objectives. Though this term looks like the previous one Process approach, there is distinct difference between them. to Identify clearly, “A set of processes interacting symmetrically will become a system”.
continual Improvement
Definition : Recurring activity to increase the ability to fulfill requirements (ref. ISO 9000:2000, 3.2.13)
The organization Shall strive to enhance its overall performance and this should be a permanent objective of the organization. There is a scope for everyone in the organization to Working in the business ( doing their Job) and Working on the business(improving the efficiency)
Factual Approach to Decision Making
Appropriate data should be identified, gathered and analyzed for trending and tracking to provide opportunities for improvement. This will lead to effective decision-making.
Mutually beneficial Supplier Relations
An organization and its suppliers are interdependent and a mutually beneficial relationship enhances the ability of both to create value.
If an organization buys in poor (good) quality, it can negatively (positively) affect the organization’s performance.
The above principles identified by the ISO 9000 Family of standards as the basis for any Quality Management Systems.
If these principles are used effectively, the organization will have a sound quality management system and will lead to success.
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Originally posted 2011-04-30 19:39:00.