What are Principles of Quality Management Systems

The function of Top Management include Management of Quality Management along with other disciplines. To succeed in Business, the top management can utilize the quality management principles identified by the International Standards like ISO 9000 Family. The Same principle apply for the other standards like AS 9100, TS 16949 which are supplement to ISO 9001. The Principles of Quality Management Systems are
Customer Focus
The Organization depend its our customers and should understand the current and future customers’ needs, should meet their requirements, and strive to exceed their expectations.
The organization must make sure that:
Customer needs & expectations are determined
Customer needs are converted into specific requirements
Customer requirements are fulfilled with the aim of “exceeding” expectations to “enhance” customer Satisfaction.
Customer Satisfaction : Customer’s perception of the degree to which the customer’s requirements have been fulfilled”(Ref: ISO 9000:2000, 3.1.4)
Customer Complaints are a common indicator of low customer satisfaction, but their absence does not necessarily imply high customer satisfaction. Even when customer requirements have been agreed with the customer and fulfilled, this does not necessarily ensure high customer satisfaction.Research shows that fewer than 5% of dissatisfied customers actually complain.
Leadership
Leaders establish a unity of purpose and the direction of the organization.  They must create and maintain the internal environment in which all employees can become fully involved in achieving the organizations objectives. There is a need for “Top Management” to play an active role in the operation & performance of the QMS.
“Top Management” involvement in the implementation & improvement of the QMS will be checked by external auditors.
Involvement of People
People at all levels are the essence of the organization and their full involvement enables their abilities to be used for the organization’s benefit. the most valuable assets of an organization is its Human Resources. The organization should create an internal environment for people at all levels feel the ownership of their task and improving it to achieve the desired customer satisfaction.
Process Approach
A desired result is achieved more efficiently when activities and related resources are managed as a process.
What is a “Process”? : “an activity using resources and managed to enable the transformation of inputs to outputs”. Often the output from one process directly forms the input to the next.
Systems Approach to Management
Identifying, understanding and managing interrelated processes as a system contributes to the organizations effectiveness and efficiency in achieving its objectives. Though this term looks like the previous one Process approach, there is distinct difference between them. to Identify clearly, “A set of processes interacting symmetrically will become a system”.
continual Improvement
Definition : Recurring activity to increase the ability to fulfill requirements (ref. ISO 9000:2000, 3.2.13)
The organization Shall strive to enhance its overall performance and this should be a permanent objective of the organization. There is a scope for everyone in the organization to Working in the business ( doing their Job) and Working on the business(improving the efficiency)
Factual Approach to Decision Making
Appropriate data should be identified, gathered and analyzed for trending and tracking to provide opportunities for improvement. This will lead to effective decision-making.
Mutually beneficial Supplier Relations
An organization and its suppliers are interdependent and a mutually beneficial relationship enhances the ability of both to create value.
If an organization buys in poor (good) quality, it can negatively (positively) affect the organization’s performance.
The above principles identified by the ISO 9000 Family of standards as the basis for any Quality Management Systems.
If these principles are used effectively, the organization will have a sound quality management system and will lead to success.
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Originally posted 2011-04-30 19:39:00.

Introduction to AS 9100

Introduction to AS 9100
AS 9100 is the most accepted, adapted and standardized Quality Management System (QMS) Standard, addressing the requirements of Aerospace Industry.
History of AS 9100
During the decade of Nineties, Aero Space Industry does not have a standard requirement of QMS. Each major organization has a basic requirements of ISO 9000 and developed its own documentation/Specific Standards. One such Standard is D1-9000 used by Boeing to evaluate its suppliers. The other contractors have developed their own supplementary standards.This has resulted in difficulties in enforcing or compliance issues.
This has resulted in Major Aerospace Contractors coming together to set up a Single, Unified QMS Standard Acceptable to all of them. This is released as AS 9000, by the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) in 1999.
The relation to ISO 9000 Came in 2000, when the rewrite of ISO is being undertaken for its 2000 version. This time AS Group worked closely with ISO and the standard is based on ISO 9000 family of standards and principles. The additional requirements of safety and Regulatory requirements are added.
The current revision of AS 9100 is Rev C which has been released in Jan 2009. This revision incorporates compatibility with the latest ISO Standard ISO 9001:2008 and some additional requirements specific to defense aviation are added.
The AS Family of Standards
AS 9100 :  Quality Management Systems – Requirements for Aviation, Space and Defense Organizations.
AS 9110 : Quality Management Systems – Requirements for Aviation Maintenance Organizations
AS 9120 :  Quality Management Systems – Requirements for Aviation, Space and Defense Distributors.
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Originally posted 2011-04-19 02:03:00.

Risk Management II – Benefits of Risk Management Program

The earlier article on Risk Management is Risk Management I – A proactive approach to resolve future root causes and their potential consequences.

Purpose of a Risk Management Plan
Risk management program helps the organization to deal with potential occurrences.  It defines the approach and attitude towards risks. This program helps in
  1. identifying what are those risks the organization is ready to accept.
  2. The plan to deal with those unacceptable risks
  3. defines the main requirements of risk mitigation plan.
 The risk Management program helps the organization in the following ways:
  • To identify risks and prepare an action plan to deal with the risk
  • To reduce occurences and impacts of risk
  • To understand significance/severity of risks
  • To promote organizational behaviors focused on risk management
  • To increase effectiveness of product and service delivery to customer
  • Create a process for who, what, when, where, how and how much.
  • Maintain information on historic issues.
  • Capitalize on historic issues to prevent future issues.
  • Bring out hidden risk knowledge, so it can be managed.

Benifits of Risk Management Program

  • Encourage proactive management
  • Be aware of the need to identify and treat risk throughout the organization
  • Improve the identification of threats
  • Comply with relevant legal and regulatory requirements and international norms
  • Improve financial reporting and governance
  • Improve stakeholder confidence and trust
  • Establish a reliable basis for decision-making and planning
  • Improve organizational controls
  • Effectively divide and use resources for risk treatment / handling
  • Improve operational effectiveness and efficiency;
  • Cost of risk management is typically less than the cost of issue management
  • Enhance health and safety performance
  • Enhance environmental protection
  • Minimize losses and improve loss prevention
  • Minimize the cost and efforts in managing incidents
  • Improve organizational learning and resilience
  • Increase the likelihood of achieving goals

The most important benefit of the risk mitigation program is that it gives the organization a future visibility. It deals with future events and not manage the current issues. The organization will be ready to face the realization of the risk. This gives a state of readiness against the potential consequences

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Risk Management I – A proactive approach to resolve future root causes and their potential consequences.

Risk Management gives the visibility on the future root causes, their consequences and ways to reduce the impact of the potential negative effects of these future root causes.  The underlined words “Future” and “potential” here indicate, it is a futuristic strategy of the organization. Risk Management can be applied at all levels of the organization. It can be applied at project, level, unit level or at organization level.
Risk Management is not a mandatory process required for ISO 9001. However, this is a Mandatory process as per AS 9100 and, a Maturity level 2 (ML2) process area for CMMI. Even though the requirements of both AS 9100 and CMMI are similar, there are subtle differences between these two.

To discuss more on the Risk Management (RSKM) we will start with few definitions.

What is Risk?
Risk is an undesirable situation or circumstance that has both a likelihood of occurring and a potentially negative consequence.
This is possible at every stage of Production or Service Provision, right from the contract development stage till Post Sales. The potential negative consequence chiefly rely on the Quality, Schedule or Cost. Whatever effort you put in, the process at every stage has some possible slippage (Remember Murphy). The Organization shall look at identifying and mitigating the effects of these likely slippage, at all Levels.

What is risk management?. Why is it needed?
Risk Management is an iterative process to identify, assess, reduce, accept, and control risks in a systematic, proactive, comprehensive and cost-effective way, taking into account the business, costs, technical, quality and schedule programmatic constraints.
Risk Management is needed to reduce the chances of potential negative result of a likely event on the business. This involves a focus on the risks to meeting customer requirements, and preventing product non conformance escapes.   The absence of a Risk Management program can result in known, unknown, and unknowable /unforeseen problems for the Customer and Stakeholders about the cost, schedule, and technical performance of programs and about the quality and on-delivery performance of products and services.

In the Second Part, we will discuss the benefits of a Risk management program.
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